ABOUT this BLOG and How to use it

WELCOME to Stu's Views & MS News, a product of MS Views and News, a Not-for-Profit 501(c3) organization. Founded in 2008. Providing Educational, Information and Resources to those affected by Multiple Sclerosis via live seminars and via the internet.

Key-Note: Our live MS educational seminars average approx 65 people per educational program and SINCE our first program in February 2010, we have hosted more than 90 educational programs in Florida. In 2013 we expanded to Georgia and in 2014 we have expanded into Alabama and North Carolina.

Register at our website to receive our globally transmitted Multiple Sclerosis e-newsletter, currently being received in more than (90) Countries. Visit MS Views and News.org

Scroll to view All the resources found on the left side of this blog. Need to find information, use our 'search by topic' tool.

Be Empowered with MS News and Information

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Tuesday, April 15, 2014

MS Relapses - Stepping Toward Another Treatment Option

SPRING HAS ARRIVED


We all welcome the spring bloom as color sweeps over our gardens, but as caretakers of this beauty we must also face the weeds. Weeds tend to change when and where they appear in a garden, much like MS relapse symptoms in your body. Weeds canʼt be avoided, but with knowledge and preparation they may be managed.
 
Know your weeds, know your tools. Learn more about how to recognize your unique MS relapse symptoms.
 
Gardeners use the tools at their disposal to deal with all types of weeds. Regardless of the type of weed, a trowel works by getting to the weedʼs roots. Though each MS relapse is unique, Acthar helps you deal with your MS symptoms by addressing them at their roots.
 
Take charge of your garden. 
Learn how Acthar can help you get back to enjoying the flowers in your life.
 
PS: Want to know more? Sign up now for an Acthar program near you.
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Uses
H.P. Acthar® Gel (repository corticotropin injection) is an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) analogue used for the treatment of acute exacerbations of multiple sclerosis in adults.


Please see Important Safety Information below and full Prescribing Information.


H.P. Acthar® Gel and Questcor® are registered trademarks of Questcor Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
©2014 Questcor Pharmaceuticals, Inc. PM-01-01-0866 04/14



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MS LifeLines Nurse Support Network Here for you

The MS LifeLines Nurse Network is readily available to provide you with education, training and support for living with relapsing multiple sclerosis and taking Rebif®(interferon beta-1a) therapy.
Whether they are out in the field or in the call center, every member of the MS LifeLines nursing team receives specialized MS training.

If you have questions, the MS LifeLines Nurse Network can help with tips to manage certain side effects with Rebif.

When it comes to understanding multiple sclerosis symptoms or learning tips for managing certain side effects, you are not alone. MS LifeLines—a network of support and community of people dedicated to helping those with MS—is here for you, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, regardless of whether you take Rebif. Every call is answered by a live MS LifeLines representative.
MS-certified nurses can provide you with helpful support, including:
  • Education about MS
  • Ongoing telephone follow-up
  • Therapy support strategies and tips for people taking Rebif
  • A caring listener who understands what you're going through
Call a nurse toll-free at 1-877-447-3243.
Nurses are available by phone:
Monday through Friday
8 AM to 10 PM ET
Saturday and Sunday
9 AM to 5 PM ET
  
Please see Important Safety Information located below as well as the RebifMedication Guide and Prescribing Information located in the top of the website, and speak with your doctor for more information.

MS LifeLines licensed and registered nurses provide one-on-one Rebif injection training in your home

Available across the country, MS LifeLines Nurse Network includes Field Nurse who provide one-on-one training to help you get started taking Rebif.
A nurse will teach you , - click here to continue

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Video discussion of why it's important to stay on therapy


You are watching: It's A Marathon: Strategies to Help Maintain Your Treatment Regimen — Preview
MS LifeLines Nurse roundtable discussion of why it's important to stay on therapy.
Watch Talk MS on demand. This online talk show features a variety of guests, including doctors, nurses and MS LifeLines Ambassadors.



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MS Patient Resources Information

On the MS Views and News Website, using the INFORMATION drop-down module, you will find one specific item that reads: WEB LINKS

Click that title or remember it exists on our website so that you can easily find Patient resources to the Pharmaceutical companies and other needs.



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About an MS Blogger named Dave

Stu's Views:

I met Dave at a summit of MS Bloggers and though I would like to create a posting for each of these people that I just met, I wanted to start with Dave. 

No Dave, this  isn't because I liked you better than anybody else, I just needed to begin somewhere.  

Dave has been quite open about his life on the internet and in general. Also I have had conversations with Dave in the past and always found him to be quite intellectually humorous. At the Bloggers meeting, I found out just how humorous he is and how this is, well let's just say,, this is Dave.

Please read about Dave and what drives him to do what he does.


Dave Bexfield, 45, is the founder of www.ActiveMSers.org, a website designed to help, motivate and inspire those with multiple sclerosis to stay as active as possible—physically, intellectually and socially—regardless of physical limitations. Established when Dave was diagnosed in 2006, ActiveMSers has helped hundreds of thousands of people with MS from around the world through its encouraging website, blogTwitter feedFacebook page, and discussion forum
Its motto: Be active, stay fit and keep exploring! 
An Albuquerque, NM, resident and longtime professional writer, Dave’s efforts have been championed by The New York Times, featured in a half-page promotion in the Wall Street Journal and he has been profiled often in local media. His video recapping his groundbreaking NIH-sponsored stem cell transplant won fan favorite at the American Academy of Neurology 2011 Neuro Film Festival and was used to lobby for health insurance reform on Capitol Hill. And this past August one of his travel stories won the international New Mexico True ultimate insider contest thanks to the support of dedicated members. Armed with attitude and a pair of forearm crutches, Dave continues to travel the world with his wife of 20 years, Laura.
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P.S. - I hope over the coming weeks you will find me writing more of the other bloggers that were at this MS Summit as EACH provides a great service to and for the Global MS Community.


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PPMS Update: Slowing Down Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis Disability Progression Worth Safety Risks For New Drugs, Say Surveyed U.S. Neurologists

Photo Credit: Designua/Shutterstock
Photo Credit: Designua/Shutterstock
According to a recent wide-ranging survey among U.S.based neurologists who treat Multiple Sclerosis, the consensus among the physician population is that doctors would be willing to accept a certain level of risk in new therapies for treating Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis if the drugs were proven to effectively reduce disability progression.

The survey, Chronic-Progressive Multiple Sclerosis: Amid Substantial Unmet Need, What Magnitude of Efficacy and Safety Do Neurologists and Payers Expect of a First-To-Market Therapy for Primary-Progressive Multiple Sclerosis?, which was conducted by Decision Resources Group (DRG) using a proprietary conjoint analysis tool, revealed that, among hypothetical therapies assessed in the study, neurologists are clearly calling for new therapeutic alternatives to Teva’s Copaxone. While Copaxone is often used by doctors as a therapy for Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis (PPMS), the neurologists implied in their responses that they would trade the safety of Copaxone for a new drug that features improved efficacy in treating the disease progression, even if there are increased life-threatening health risks associated with a new drug. 

The new insights reveal that there continues to be significant unmet needs in drug development for types of MS other than its most common form, relapsing-remitting, which features a collection of disease modifying and interferon-based drugs commonly used to slow down its progression into secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS). PPMS differs from relapsing-remitting, in that those who develop PPMS from the onset of being diagnosed with Multiple Sclerosis see a steady, constant acceleration of symptoms and brain atrophy, as opposed to the “ups and downs” associated with relapsing-remitting. Because the progression of symptoms and rapid loss of quality of life in PPMS is so palpable, that doctors are seeking out new ways to slow down the disease’s progression for their patients.
For their part, Teva would appear to agree, in that the drug maker is currently working on an emerging MS treatment called Nerventra — a promising Multiple Sclerosis treatment that, while not yet studied in PPMS patients, shows enough preliminary efficacy that the neurologists surveyed in the DGR study say that the drug would find application in 24 percent of the currently treated PP-MS patient population. The particular interest in Nerventra stems from the fact that the drug offers a key ingredient in treating Multiple Sclerosis — a putative neuroprotective effect — and has also shown a benign safety profile to date. Together with a patient-friendly once-daily oral administration, medical practitioners are clearly seeing it as a potential next-generation therapy for primary progressive Multiple Sclerosis.
READ More of this by clicking here

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Sunday, April 13, 2014

Early Warning Signs of MS

When you have multiple sclerosis (MS), your immune system attacks your central nervous system, affecting your brain, spinal cord, and optic nerves.  Symptoms can vary, and come and go, making it sometimes hard to diagnose.  You could have one symptom, and then months or years later have a completely different one, not realizing the two are related. In one study, people went an average of 7 years between their first MS symptom and their diagnosis.
So learn the common early symptoms of MS. It may help you get diagnosed and treated quicker.

Vision Problems

For many people, the first symptom of multiple sclerosis is in their eyes. Often, MS causes optic neuritis, a condition that damages the nerve connecting the eye to the brain. It usually affects just one eye, but in rare cases it involves both. Symptoms include:
  • Blurry vision
  • Colors that appear dull
  • Pain in the eye, especially when you move it
Often, the symptoms get better on their own within a few weeks or months. But if you have these symptoms, go to your doctor right away.
Other eye conditions linked to MS bring on double vision and involuntary eye movements.

Strange Sensations

The first symptoms of MS may also be unusual sensations around your body, including:
  • An electric-shock-like feeling when you move your head or neck. It may travel down your spine or into your arms or legs.
  • Numbness, often in the face 
  • Tingling
  • A feeling of tightness or swelling
  • Severe itching

Fatigue

Another common early symptom of MS is extreme tiredness. You may feel exhausted even if you haven’t been very active. You may be tired as soon as you wake up in the morning.

Heat-Related Problems

When you exercise, you may get tired and weak as soon as your body warms. You may also have trouble controlling certain body parts, like your foot or leg, while your body is warmed up. As you rest and cool down, these symptoms are likely to go away.

Walking Problems

MS can lead to worse coordination, making it hard to walk. Symptoms can include:  
  • Trouble keeping your balance
  • Trouble walking with your usual gait

Other Symptoms

Depending on which part of your nervous system is affected, other early symptoms can include:
  • Trouble thinking clearly
  • Depression
  • Bladder and bowel problems
  • A sense that the room is spinning, a condition called vertigo
  • Pain

Talk to Your Doctor About Your Symptoms

If you’ve had one or more symptoms that are common with MS, your doctor may suggest tests. These can include:
  • Blood tests to look for other problems with MS-like symptoms, like Lyme disease.
  • A test to measure the speed of signals traveling along your nerves.
  • An MRI, which creates images of your brain, so your doctor can check for areas of damage.
  • A spinal tap to check the fluid that flows in your brain and spinal cord. This may show signs that your immune system is harming your nervous system, which is what happens in MS.
Source WebMD
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Recognizing some of the early symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

People with multiple sclerosis (MS) tend to have their first symptoms between the ages of 20 and 40. Usually the symptoms get better, but then come back. Some may come and go, while others linger.
Keep track of your symptoms to help your doctor know whether MS or another condition is to blame.
Whether you have a diagnosis or are worried about symptoms, know that MS doesn't have to control your life. You can work with your doctor to treat and manage your symptoms so you can stay healthy and continue to live the life you want.

Early Symptoms of MS

  • Blurred or double vision
  • Thinking problems
  • Clumsiness or a lack of coordination
  • Loss of balance
  • Numbness
  • Tingling
  • Weakness in an arm or leg
No two people have exactly the same symptoms of MS.
You may have a single symptom, and then go months or years without any others. A problem can also happen just one time, go away, and never return. For some people, the symptoms become worse within weeks or months.

Common Symptoms of MS

These are the most common changes to the mind and body in someone with MS:
Unusual sensations: People with MS often say they feel a "pins and needles" sensation. They may also have numbness, itching, burning, stabbing, or tearing pains. About half of people with MS have these uncomfortable symptoms. Fortunately, they can be managed or treated.
Bladder problems: About 8 in 10 people have bladder problems, which can be treated. You may need to pee often, urgently, need to go at night, or have trouble emptying your bladder fully. Bowel problems, especially constipation, are also common.
Trouble walking: MS can cause muscle weakness or spasms, which make it harder to walk. Balance problems, numb feet, and fatigue can also make walking hard.
Dizziness: It's common to feel dizzy or lightheaded. You usually won't have vertigo, or the feeling that the room is spinning.
Fatigue: About 8 in 10 people feel very tiredIt often comes on in the afternoon and causes weak muscles, slowed thinking, or sleepiness. It's usually not related to the amount of work you do. Some people with MS say they can feel tired even after a good night's sleep.
Muscle spasms: They usually affect the leg muscles. For about 40% of people they are an early symptom of MS. In progressive MS, muscle spasms affect about 6 in 10 people. You might feel mild stiffness or strong, painful muscle spasms.
Sexual trouble: These include vaginal dryness in women and erection problems in men. Both men and women may be less responsive to touch, have a lower sex drive, or have trouble reaching orgasm.
Speech problems: Sometimes MS can cause people to pause a long time in between words and have slurred or nasal speech. Some people also develop swallowing problems in more advanced stages of MS.
source: webMD
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Thursday, April 10, 2014

An MS Patient's story: 11 Years Gimpy and the Lessons Learned

Posted: 10 Apr 2014 07:20 AM PDT

Last month I “celebrated” the 11th anniversary of my MS diagnosis with part one of Lessons Learned (click here), which looked at some of the insights my grappling with the disease had revealed about life, both the one lived inside my head and the kaleidoscopic swirl of the world around me. Along with the expected liberal dose of anguish, the disease has also brought with it some unexpected flashes of understanding, and maybe even something akin to a bit of wisdom. Not to say that I’ve got much of anything figured out, but I have at times gained a sense of clarity that was most often missing back when I was healthy.

My decade plus grapple with chronic progressive disabling illness has also taught me a hell of a lot about modern medicine and medical research. Admittedly, these are lessons I naturally would rather have not had to learn, but I didn’t have much choice in the matter. Multiple sclerosis is an enigmatic disease, and the rarer, progressive forms of the disease are particularly inscrutable, but my affliction managed to wake within me a long dormant inner scientist, or an at least inner scientist wannabe, who finds a lot of this stuff fascinating, frustrating, infuriating, and maybe sometimes even a little bit fulfilling. I sure do wish that wake-up call had come in the form of something much less horrific, but again, that wasn’t up to me. If nothing else, the time since my diagnosis has made for quite an education.

When I was living my long-ago and far away healthy life, my interactions with the world of medicine were usually brief and fairly perfunctory, even if I did have a pretty good working knowledge of disease due to my well hewn hypochondria. I took comfort, though, in the seemingly nonstop procession of blaring headlines and breathless news items regarding the latest medical breakthroughs, which painted a picture of modern medicine as something close to a bright and shiny miracle machine, ever more able to conquer devastating illness and fix broken bodies.

When I got sick, however, it didn’t take long for me to come to the uncomfortable realization that I’d been somewhat hoodwinked, that although some specific areas of medicine had seen huge advances, large parts of the modern medicine miracle machine so often portrayed in the media are in fact held together by shoestring and chewing gum. High-tech and expensive shoestring and chewing gum to be sure, wielded by some dedicated and knowledgeable people, but in far too many cases not much more effective than the shoestring and chewing gum that existed half a century ago.

Tremendous breakthroughs have been made in the surgical arena, where procedures that are now done daily would have been looked on as the stuff of fantasy 50 years ago. It wasn’t until 1954 that the first kidney transplant was performed, and over the next 15 years transplants of lungs, livers, and hearts were first successfully achieved. These procedures, all lifesavers, are now common if not routine. The advents of bypass surgery and angioplasty have been incredible game changers in the field of cardiac medicine, and neurosurgery too has witnessed advances barely dreamt of just a few decades ago. Surgery has become increasingly less invasive and much more survivable. Back in 1989 I suffered a detached retina, resulting in a surgery that required a four-day hospital stay and a two-month convalescence. Today, the same procedure is done on an outpatient basis. Incredible.

When it comes to treating many diseases, though, shockingly few tangible advances have been made in the last 50 years. Antibiotics have revolutionized the treatment of diseases caused by bacterial infections, but wide swathes of other illnesses have proven incredibly hard to crack. Neurologic diseases such as ALS, Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and other less common maladies of the nervous system remain as untreatable as ever. The so-called autoimmune illnesses like diabetes, lupus, multiple sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis continue to stymie researchers, and though some of these diseases now have treatments that improve quality of life, none have divulged any of the secrets that might lead to a cure. Despite massive amounts of time and money spent on research, many cancers remain just as deadly today as they were in years past. Though some specific malignancies such as those of the breast, prostate, and lung are much more survivable today than ever before, the overall cancer death rate has decreased, astoundingly, only 5% since 1950 (click here)! When it comes to the vast majority of cancers, medicine has learned how to keep those afflicted alive somewhat longer, and there is of course much to be said for that, but it hasn’t found a way to keep them from dying of their malignancies. All in all, many diseases, though perhaps better understood, remain devastating and deadly despite the efforts of the modern medicine establishment. The situation makes me want to howl in dismay.

Naturally, the disease I’m most intimately familiar with is MS. Surely, there have been significant advances made in treating the relapsing remitting form of the disease, but the progressive flavors of the disease remained wicked, untamed, and diabolical beasts. Though the mysteries of MS are slowly being unraveled, the advances have been incremental, and each new discovery seems to only open the door for more questions. Just a little over 20 years ago there were no treatments for even relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), aside from the use of intravenous steroids to help calm down active relapses. The disease was considered by many doctors to be a “diagnose and adios” illness, for which not much could be done. Today, there are 10 FDA approved disease modifying drugs on the market, with a handful more on the way. None of these drugs is perfect, with a wide variance of effectiveness, tolerance, and potentially dangerous – and even deadly – side effects among them, but they have improved the quality of life of people with RRMS, in many cases dramatically.

I was intensely skeptical and harshly critical of some of these drugs when they were first introduced, thinking that their risks would far outweigh any potential benefits, but time and mounting evidence has softened my views. Facts are facts, and the preponderance of evidence shows that when administered properly to diligently monitored patients, even those MS drugs considered the most dangerous have had tremendous positive impact on many of the relapsing remitting patients who take them, at times even allowing some patients to live lives free of any evidence of disease activity, and experienced neurologists have learned to manage the risks involved quite well. That said, the status quo remains unacceptable. There is still nothing for us “progressives”, and all of the current MS drugs tinker to a lesser or greater extent with the workings of the intensely complex human immune system, the product of tens of millions of years of evolution. It’s clear that the aberrant immune response that has become the hallmark of MS is in reality a symptom of a much greater and as yet undiscovered ill, and continued focus on that immune response will not lead to a cure. Unfortunately, the very success of the immunosuppressant agents used to treat MS has made the search for the ultimate cause of the disease all the more difficult. Why? Because, quite simply, our system for medical research is flat out broken.

Up until about 20 or 30 years ago, most medical research was done on behalf of governments and academia, for whom profit potential didn’t much play into the equation. Since the 1980s, though, more and more research has been funded by the big pharmaceutical companies, and today upwards of 75% of all medical research is powered by pharmaceutical company monies, with that number growing ever higher due to our current economic and political climate. Though some of the business practices of these companies can be nauseating, there’s nothing inherently evil about the companies that develop, market, and manufacture pharmaceutical products.

It’s vitally important when thinking about these Big Pharma companies to keep in mind that they are publicly traded for-profit entities, and as such they are mandated by law to be beholden to their shareholders, not to the end-users of their products – otherwise known as patients. This dynamic creates some inherent conflicts of interest, as the mission of any business is to generate ever-increasing profits, and when it comes to medicine greater profits do not always translate into greater therapeutics. In some cases, the very reverse may be true.

Simply put, the job of a drug company CEO is not necessarily to produce the most effective drugs, but the most profitable. In point of fact, if a pharmaceutical CEO put medical potential above profit potential he could very well be breaking the law. Therefore, pharmaceutical company research monies pour into projects that stand the greatest chance of generating terrific profit, which are likely not efforts that might upend an already lucrative business model. This is why so many of the new drugs we see are of the “me too” variety, variations on older drugs that have already proven their profit potential. The corrosive influence of big money generated by blockbuster drugs has thoroughly infiltrated our medical research model, skewing the focus of much medical research from purely scientific to also encompass the predilections of the marketplace.

For their part, researchers, as well-intentioned as they may be, must pay the rent and feed their families just like everybody else, and so are drawn to projects most likely to receive generous funding, which are these days are those that have the attentions of the big pharmaceutical companies. Thus we have on our hands a kind of highly dysfunctional perpetual motion machine, fueled by people performing their jobs to the best of their abilities, which unfortunately is not constituted to produce the results most desired by legions of sick people and the professionals who treat them.

The problem is insidious, and is at this point woven into the very fabric of the system. Though this system has certainly come up with its share of medical advances, it hasn’t produced much in the way of cures, and in fact can stymie potentially paradigm shifting research that doesn’t present any obvious profit potential and/or threatens the status quo. Older drugs that might be repurposed for the greater good, or natural and alternative remedies that might be as effective as pharmaceutical products stand very little chance of receiving the research dollars needed to prove their worth simply because they have no potential to generate tremendous amounts of cash. Radical new concepts are often shunned not out of evil intent but for cold business reasons, as bringing them to fruition would be cost prohibitive, and even if successful they could kill the proverbial goose that lays the golden egg. We have turned diseases into multibillion-dollar industries and the sick into consumers in a topsy-turvy medical research environment in which success is most often measured in dollars earned, not diseases eradicated or people cured. What’s the answer? Got me, I’m too busy slowly watching myself becoming a complete cripple.

So, where does this leave me after my 11 year struggle with MS? Well, conflicted, to say the least. I’ve met incredibly dedicated professionals who are literally obsessed with finding the cure for MS, filling me with hope. Simultaneously, though, I’ve come to understand that despite these folk’s best efforts, the system within which they work is fundamentally flawed, a fact which fills me with consternation. That gleaming tower that modern medicine appeared to be when I was healthy has instead been revealed to be more a product of spin and public relations than reality. I’ve evolved as a person and a patient, as I’ve come to understand that there are no absolutes when it comes to life and medicine, and especially when it comes to a disease as devilish as multiple sclerosis.

Despite the mysteries of the disease and the madly dysfunctional research model that is now the norm, each day I read some stimulating new bit of research, or talk to a researcher wholly dedicated to the cause, and can’t help but nurture a persistent optimism, even in the face of my relentlessly progressing disease and the tremendous obstacles that stand between me and the realization of my dream to once again be whole. Stem cells may hold the answer, or anti-HIV drugs, or something completely unexpected that may pop out of some far away test tube tomorrow. We can only hope that if and when such a discovery is made, it manages to see the light of day.

Really, though, I just want to take a walk…


Marc Stecker




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Wednesday, April 9, 2014

New Multiple Sclerosis Medical Tool Helps Treat MS Bladder, Bowel Symptoms

MS bladder and bowelMultiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease that affects upper motor neurons in the brain and lower motor neurons in the spinal cord.  Damage occurs to the myelin sheath, fat wrappings around axons, which causes nerve signals (action potentials) to slow down or stop.  This poor electrical conductance leads to a lack of neuron to neuron communication. Symptoms can vary including muscle weakness, slurred speech, bowel and bladder issues, impaired vision and possibly paralysis.  Bowel and bladder symptoms include constipation, stool leakage, frequent urination and urinary incontinence.
A recent clinical trial in Australia was led by Louise Kurczycki, a nurse from Melbourne-based Monash University, to determine better ways of managing MS symptoms.  The trial facilitated a team of scientists to develop a new screening tool that aids in identification of bladder and bowel symptoms in MS patients.
Kurczycki notes, bladder and bowel symptoms are common in multiple sclerosis and can have profound effects on an MS patients quality of life and self esteem.  If these symptoms are left untreated, urinary problems can have long-term effects.  Research has elucidated the benefit of treating bladder/bowel problems, however symptoms are often disregarded or tolerated by MS patients and overlooked or poorly managed by healthcare professionals.
Eastern Health MS service at Monash University previously trialled a screening tool to determine the extent of urinary and bowel issues in 100 MS patients.  Researchers reported they found many had urinary and bowel problems, including incontinence, and had not informed their neurologist or MS nurse.
The next stage of the trial will try to identify whether therapy initiated by a continence nurse improves and reduces the burden and impact of bladder symptoms.  Kurczycki adds, “Identifying continence issues is vital in MS to reduce the possibility of longer term bladder and bowel dysfunction, and contribute to improved quality of life for people with MS.”
MS patients participating in the trial who are identified as having bladder issues will be offered either immediate therapy or individualized information to help deal with their specific problem.
Source: BioNews

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