What an amazing experience it was.
Right Internal Jugular
An angiogram, which is an X-ray test using a special dye and camera to take pictures of the blood flow in the vein, was performed in the right internal jugular vein. This revealed a short segment stenosis adjacent to the confluence of the brachiocephalic vein. The diameter reduction associated with this stenosis was approximately 60%. The more important number, relative to flow restriction, is the cross sectional area reduction which in this case was approximately 85%.
Multiple collateral veins were noted at this location. Collateral veins indicate attempts by the body to establish bypass flow around an obstruction. Dr. Sclafani inserted the intravascular ultrasound device (IVUS) and confirmed the stenosis. A balloon was inserted, and the vein was dilated multiple times. Another angiogram was performed after dilation which indicated improved flow, diminished flow through collaterals, and no stenosis. Note that the nominal diameter of this blood vessel was 12 mm. Dr. Sclafani prefers to slightly over-dilate the vessel in these instances, and so a 14mm x 4 cm balloon was used.