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Sunday, September 14, 2014

Multiple Sclerosis - Library of Information

Multiple sclerosis

MS; Demyelinating disease
Last reviewed: 2013
Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease that affects the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system).
Multiple sclerosis

Causes

Multiple sclerosis (MS) affects women more than men. The disorder is most commonly diagnosed between ages 20 and 40, but can be seen at any age.
MS is caused by damage to the myelin sheath, the protective covering that surrounds nerve cells. When this nerve covering is damaged, nerve signals slow down or stop.
Myelin and nerve structure
The nerve damage is caused by inflammation. Inflammation occurs when the body's own immune cells attack the nervous system. This can occur along any area of the brain, optic nerve, and spinal cord.
It is unknown what exactly causes this to happen. The most common thought is that a virus or gene defect, or both, are to blame. Environmental factors may play a role.
You are slightly more likely to get this condition if you have a family history of MS or live in an part of the world where MS is more common.

Symptoms

Symptoms vary, because the location and severity of each attack can be different. Attacks can last for days, weeks, or months. Attacks are followed by periods of reduced or no symptoms (remissions). Fever, hot baths, sun exposure, and stress can trigger or worsen attacks.
It is common for the disease to return (relapse). However, the disease may continue to get worse without periods of remission.
Nerves in any part of the brain or spinal cord may be damaged. Because of this, MS symptoms can appear in many parts of the body.
Central nervous system and peripheral nervous system
Muscle symptoms:
  • Loss of balance
  • Muscle spasms
  • Numbness or abnormal sensation in any area
  • Problems moving arms or legs
  • Problems walking
  • Problems with coordination and making small movements
  • Tremor in one or more arms or legs
  • Weakness in one or more arms or legs
Nerve supply to the pelvis
Bowel and bladder symptoms:
Eye symptoms:
Numbness, tingling, or pain:
Other brain and nerve symptoms:
  • Decreased attention span, poor judgment, and memory loss
  • Difficulty reasoning and solving problems
  • Depression or feelings of sadness
  • Dizziness and balance problems
  • Hearing loss
Sexual symptoms:
Speech and swallowing symptoms:
  • Slurred or difficult-to-understand speech
  • Trouble chewing and swallowing
Fatigue is a common and bothersome symptom as MS progresses. It is often worse in the late afternoon.

Exams and Tests

Symptoms of MS may be mimic those of many other nervous system problems. MS is diagnosed by ruling out other conditions.
People who have a form of MS called relapsing-remitting may have a history of at least two attacks, separated by a period of reduced or no symptoms.
The doctor may suspect MS if there are decreases in the function of two different parts of the central nervous system (such as abnormal reflexes) at two different times.
An exam of the nervous system may show reduced nerve function in one area of the body. Or it may be spread over many parts of the body. This may include:
  • Abnormal nerve reflexes
  • Decreased ability to move a part of the body
  • Decreased or abnormal sensation
  • Other loss of nervous system functions
An eye examination may show:

CONTINUE with further information from PubMed by clicking here
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