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Thursday, April 14, 2016
Interdependence and contributions of sun exposure and vitamin D to MRI measures in multiple sclerosis
1Department of Neurology, Buffalo Neuroimaging Analysis Center, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York, USA
2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York, USA
3Department of Neurology, Multiple Sclerosis Center, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York, USA
Correspondence toProfessor M Ramanathan, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, State University of New York, Buffalo, 355 Kapoor Hall, Buffalo, NY 14214-8033, USA; Murali@Buffalo.Edu
Received 24 November 2012
Revised 3 January 2013
Accepted 10 January 2013
Purpose To assess the relationships of sun exposure history, supplementation and environmental factors to vitamin D levels in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and to evaluate the associations between sun exposure and MRI measures.
Methods This study included 264 MS patients (mean age 46.9±10 years, disease duration 14.6±10 years; 67.8% relapsing–remitting, 28% secondary progressive and 4.2% primary progressive MS) and 69 healthy controls. Subjects underwent neurological and 3 T MRI examinations, provided blood samples and answered questions to a structured questionnaire. Information on race, skin and eye colour, supplement use, body mass index (BMI) and sun exposure was obtained by questionnaire. The vitamin D metabolites (25-hydroxy vitamin D3, 1, 25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 and 24, 25-dihydroxy vitamin D3) were measured using mass spectrometry.