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Tuesday, December 6, 2016

Individual and Co-occurring SNAP Risk Factors: Investigation of Smoking, Nutrition, Alcohol Consumption, and Physical Activity in Persons with Multiple Sclerosis


                                                                  
  

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Julia M. Balto BSIpek Ensari PhDElizabeth A. Hubbard MSNaiman Khan PhD, RDJennifer L. Barnes PhD, RDRobert W. Motl PhD
From the Department of Kinesiology and Community Health (JMB, IE, EAH, NK, RWM) and Division of Nutritional Sciences (NK), University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA; Department of Family and Consumer Sciences, Illinois State University, Bloomington, IL, USA (JLB); and Department of Physical Therapy, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA (RWM).
Correspondence: Robert W. Motl, PhD, Department of Physical Therapy, University of Alabama at Birmingham, School of Health Professions 336, Birmingham, AL; e-mail: 
Background: Smoking, poor nutrition, excess alcohol consumption, and insufficient physical activity underlie most preventable causes of morbidity in the general population and are possibly associated with co-morbidities and health outcomes in MS. However, the frequency of co-occurrence of these risk factors among people with MS remains unclear.
Methods: Sixty-nine participants with MS completed self-report measures of smoking status, nutrition, alcohol use, physical activity levels, and sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. The data were analyzed using ttests and χ2 analyses in SPSS Statistics 22.0.
Results: Poor diet was the most common risk factor, with 85.5% of the sample not meeting dietary guidelines. Of participants with two or more risk factors, 90.3% were not meeting dietary and physical activity guidelines. There were differential rates of meeting physical activity guidelines between men and women (χ2 = 7.5, P = .01) such that 73% of women were not meeting physical activity guidelines compared with 38% of men. There were further differential rates of the most commonly co-occurring risk factors, insufficient physical activity and poor nutrition by sex (χ2 = 4.2, P = .05), such that 65% of women reported the co-occurrence of insufficient physical activity and poor diet compared with 38% of men.
Conclusion: Our results indicate that: a) an overwhelming 85.5% of the sample was not meeting nutrition guidelines; b) 90.3% of participants with two or more risk factors reported the co-occurrence of poor diet and insufficient levels of physical activity; and c) physical activity levels and the total number of SNAP risk factors varied across sex.
© 2016 Consortium of Multiple Sclerosis Centers.

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