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Saturday, May 28, 2016

New 'Brain Food' Scale Flags Best Nutrients for Depression

                                                                  

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UPDATED May 27, 2016 // ATLANTA ― Scientists have developed a new evidence-based scale that rates animal- and plant-based foods that improve depressive symptoms.
Research on this scale and on foods that help nourish the brain was presented here at a standing-room-only session during the American Psychiatric Association (APA) 2016 Annual Meeting.
There is increasing evidence regarding the crucial role that diet plays in brain health, particularly in the areas of depression and dementia, said Drew Ramsey, MD, assistant clinical professor of psychiatry, Columbia University, New York City, who was one of the session speakers.
"The data are very clear that there's a powerful prevention signal when we help our patients eat better," Dr Ramsey told Medscape Medical News.
Plant foods are high on Dr Ramsey's brain food scale. To develop this nutrient profiling system, he and his colleagues assessed the literature and compiled a list of what they call brain essential nutrients (BEN) that affect the treatment and prevention of depression.
Key nutrients include long-chain omega 3 fatty acids, magnesium, calcium, fiber, and vitamins B1, B9, B12, D, and E.
They then gathered nutritional data for top food sources of BEN from the Agricultural Research Service Nutrient Data Laboratory and used a formula to calculate the Brain Food Scale score.
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MS Treatments in the Pipeline

                                                                  

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Find out more about new potential treatments for MS that are currently in phase 2 (mid-stage) or phase 3 (late-stage) clinical trials. These treatments aren't available yet, but have reported promising results. Keep coming back to read about the latest updates and newest potential treatments.
It’s important that potential treatments for MS are tested in clinical trials to make sure that only safe and effective treatments reach people with MS. Clinical trials are usually completed in three phases before a treatment can be licensed. 
Around one in ten potential treatments makes it through all three phases of clinical trials. This is because the treatments have to be tested in humans for the first time (phase 1), will need to meet strict safety and effectiveness criteria, and will have to be proven as effective in large numbers of people.Read more about the research process here.
There are currently 11 licensed treatments for people with relapsing remitting MS, along with several symptom management treatments for people with all types of MS. 

Find out about the treatments that are currently in trials for:

Relapsing remitting MS

Phase 3

RPC1063

RPC1063 is an oral medication thought to prevent a subset of immune cellsfrom entering the brain and spinal cord.

Daclizumab

Daclizumab is an injectable drug that can reduce the number of immune cells present in the body

Ocrelizumab

Ocrelizumab is an intravenous infusion that targets cells of the immune system.

Ofatumumab

Ofatumumab is an injectable drug that can alter the behaviour of certain immune cells.

Laquinimod

Laquinimod is a tablet that is thought to stop immune cells reaching the brain.

Ponesimod

Ponesimod is an oral treatment that might stop immune cells reaching the brain.

Phase 2

Anti-LINGO-1

Anti-LINGO-1 is an intravenous infusion treatment that has been shown to have the potential to repair myelin.

Minocycline

Minocycline is an oral antibiotic currently used to treat bacterial infections and can prevent inflammation.

Raltegravir

Raltegravir is an oral antiretroviral drug that can fight viral infections.

Rituximab

Rituximab is an intravenous infusion that can reduce the number of immune cells in the body.

MT-1303

MT-1303 is an oral treatment that alters the behavior of immune cells.

Lipoic acid

Lipoic acid is an oral treatment that may prevent immune cells from reaching the brain.

Clemastine

Clemastine is an oral treatment that has been shown to suppress the immune system and may promote myelin repair.

ATL1102

ATL1102 is an injection that prevents immune cells from reaching the brain and spinal cord.

Vatelizumab

Vatelizumab is an infusion that prevents certain immune cells from building up at sites of inflammation in MS.

Progressive MS

Phase 3 

Ocrelizumab

Ocrelizumab is an intravenous infusion that targets cells of the immune system.

MD1003

MD1003 is an oral medication that has shown the potential to promote myelin repair.

Masitinib

Masitinib is an oral treatment that blocks some of the body's immune responses.

Siponimod

Siponimod is an oral treatment that stops immune cells from reaching the brain.

Fingolimod

Fingolimod is an oral treatment that stops certain immune cells from reaching the brain.

Phase 2

Phenytoin

Phenytoin is an oral treatment that has been shown to have the potential to protect nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord.

Anti-LINGO-1

Anti-LINGO-1 is an intravenous infusion treatment that has been shown to have the potential to repair myelin.

MS-SMART

MS-SMART is a trial involving three oral treatments - amiloride, fluoxetine and riluzole - that have been shown to have neuroprotective properties.

Rituximab

Rituximab is an intravenous infusion that can reduce the number of immune cells in the body.

Simvastatin

Simvastatin is an oral treatment that has been shown to have neuroprotective properties.

Lipoic acid

Lipoic acid is an oral treatment that may prevent immune cells from reaching the brain.

Dirucotide

Dirucotide is an intravenous infusion treatment believed to suppress the immune response against myelin.

Natalizumab

Also known as Tysabri, natalizumab prevents immune cells from leaving the blood stream and entering the brain and spinal cord.

Fluoxetine

Fluoxetine is a licenced medication in the treatment of depression. It is also currently being tested in a phase 2 clinical trial called MS-SMART in people with secondary progressive MS.

Riluzole

Riluzole is a licenced medication for motor neurone disease (MND). It is also currently being tested in a phase 2 clinical trial called MS-SMART in people with secondary progressive MS.

Amiloride

Amiloride is a licenced medication in the treatment of heart disease. It is also currently being tested in a phase 2 clinical trial called MS-SMART in people with secondary progressive MS.

Laquinimod

Laquinimod is a tablet that is thought to stop immune cells reaching the brain.

MIS416

MIS416 is an infusion that is thought to alter the behaviour of certain immune cells in MS.

MN-166

MN-166 is a tablet thought to have anti-inflammatory effects and to protect against cell death, which may be beneficial in reducing nerve cell loss in MS.









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Anti-LINGO-1 no flash in the pan? Biogen's acute optic neuritis data look brighter

                                                                  

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By Marie PowersNews Editor
Top-line findings for Biogen Inc.'s anti-LINGO-1 monoclonal antibody candidate, BIIB033, that were released earlier this year gained a bit more credibility when additional data were disclosed today in advance of the company's presentations next week at the American Academy of Neurology's (AAN) 67th Annual Meeting in Washington.
The data, from five abstracts that Biogen researchers will present at AAN, showed additional evidence from studies in acute optic neuritis (AON) that the investigational therapy may repair myelin in humans. The AON data are designed to advance the scientific thesis on anti-LINGO-1, which the company also is testing in multiple sclerosis (MS).
The randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II RENEW trial evaluated anti-LINGO-1's ability to enable repair of an optic nerve lesion through axonal remyelination after the onset of a first episode of AON. The study enrolled 82 patients following their first incident of AON – a disease that typically affects one eye and is characterized by inflammation, damage to the nerve fibers and loss of myelin within the optic nerve – across 33 sites in Europe, Canada and Australia. Patients received six intravenous infusions of 100 mg/kg anti-LINGO-1 or placebo every four weeks.
AON was selected as an initial indication for the drug because an estimated 50 percent of those affected with the eye condition later develop MS.
RENEW examined the effects on remyelination by measuring the latency of nerve conduction between the retina and the visual cortex in the brain using full field visual evoked potential, or FF-VEP. In January, Biogen reported that patients treated with BIIB033 showed improvement in recovery of optic nerve latency, or the time for a signal to travel from the retina to the visual cortex, over 24 weeks, providing evidence of biological repair to the visual system. However, the results – a 34 percent improvement (p = 0.0504) in the recovery of optic nerve latency compared to placebo – were not statistically significant.

Continue reading





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Ocrelizumab (another MAB - Mono Clonal Antibody)

                                                                  

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Ocrelizumab is an intravenous infusion treatment that has been developed by Hoffmann-La Roche. Top-line results have been announced from a phase 3 clinical trial looking at the use of ocrelizumab in primary progressive MS and phase 3 clinical trials for relapsing MS were announced as complete in June 2015.
Current phase of trial: Under review by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
Type of MS: primary progressive, relapsing remitting, and secondary progressive MS with relapses.

How does ocrelizumab work?

Ocrelizumab works by targeting immune cells known as B-lymphocytes. This helps to supress the immune responseand reduce the damage to myelin that occurs in MS.

How is ocrelizumab taken?

Ocrelizumab is taken as an intravenous infusion every 6 months.

Latest research

Relapsing remitting MS

Two phase 3 trials (OPERA I and OPERA II) were completed in June 2015 and Roche reported positive outcomes for the effectiveness of ocrelizumab as a treatment for relapsing remitting MS against interferon beta-1a (also known as Rebif). The trials involved over 1,600 people and after two years, the study is reported to show that ocrelizumab reduced the annual relapse rate by 46% in OPERA 1, 47% in OPERA II and the progression of clinical disability by 40%, as measured by the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). Additionally, the study has been reported to show that ocrelizumab reduced the number of lesions in the brain, as measured by MRI scans by 94%.
Roche have also reported at a conference in April 2016 that around 50% of people taking ocrelizumab saw no evidence of disease activity (NEDA) in both OPERA I and OPERA II, this was compared to 25-30% of people taking interferon-beta-1a. NEDA is defined as no relapses, no confirmed disability progression as measured by EDSS, and no new or enlarging lesions.

Primary Progressive MS

A phase 3 trial (ORATORIO) began in 2011 to test ocrelizumab against placebo in 732 people with primary progressive MS. This involved two infusions 14 days apart in each treatment cycle.
Top-line results announced by Roche at a conference in April 2016 show treatment with ocrelizumab led to a reduction in the progression of clinical disability by 25% compared to placebo. This reduction was sustained for at least 24 weeks and was measured by the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). Roche also reported that ocrelizumab reduced the rate of brain atrophy (shrinkage) by 17.5%.




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TREATING MS effectively

                                                                  

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Early treatment

A new scientific consensus has been reached that changes the way relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) should be treated. 
The evidence now tells us that, rather than waiting to see whether more relapses occur, disease modifying therapies (DMTs) should be offered as close as possible to diagnosis. 

Treatment benefits

We now know that early treatment improves long-term health and wellbeing by slowing down the build up of irreversible damage and reducing the number of relapses people experience. However, the evidence also doesn’t mean that starting treatment later will not have any benefits.

Speak to your neurologist

Everyone with a relapsing form of MS should speak to their neurologist or MS professional about treatment options and make an active and informed choice about what is right for them. If you don't have a relapsing form of MS, or aren't sure what kind of MS you have, it's still important to have an annual review with your neurologist.

What's changed?

Experts used to think that when a person with MS had a ‘relapse’ it meant symptoms appeared and/or quickly got worse and then went away (or ‘remitted’).
Thanks to wider use of MRI scanning, we now have evidence that when symptoms get better, the damage that MS causes often doesn’t stop. So even when someone with MS is not having a relapse, MS may carry on attacking their body. This could lead to nerve damage that can’t be put right. 
This new evidence has changed what we understand about MS and how to treat it. Rather than waiting to see whether more relapses occur, DMTs should be offered as close as possible to diagnosis, before damage to the body has built up.

What does this mean for me?

If this news affects you, we recommend that you speak to your neurologist or MS specialist about your treatment options, so you can decide what's right for you. 
If you don't have a neurologist or MS specialist, you should visit your GP and request a referral.

Continue reading from MS Society-UK website





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MS Views and News
Provides educational information, resources and services for those affected by MS
We Believe YOU (the MS Patients and Caregivers) should Be Empowered with Multiple Sclerosis information
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