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Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Breathing exercises

If we are not very active, we tend to breathe less deeply and therefore less efficiently. Breathing exercises also play a part in improving our posture and exercising both the diaphragm and abdominal muscles.
whistling

Fun with breathing exercises

You can also have fun with breathing exercises - try singing or whistling! It doesn't matter if you're not very good! If nothing else it may make you laugh at your efforts and laughter is proven therapy for us all!
If you can't whistle or sing, then just try a long slow blow. See how long you can take to blow a lung full of air out, counting in your head. If you can get to 20 or 30 you're doing fine!
These exercises can be done at any time of day. Many of them could be done while watching TV. It is useful to use something as a trigger to remind you to do some of the exercises. It is also sensible to intersperse the breathing exercises with the others so that you don't get giddy!
If you have problems/concerns, talk to a physiotherapist.

Breathing exercises

Each exercise can be downloaded as a pdf, allowing you to build up a programme to meet your own needs.


MSTrust.org.uk:
 https://www.mstrust.org.uk/life-ms/exercise/build-your-own-exercise-routine/breathing-exercises

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Why You Should Tell Your Neurologist If You Feel Depressed

October 2019

While an estimated 17.3 million (or 7.1 percent of) adults in the United States have had at least one major depressive episode, we know the incidence is much higher in people with certain neurologic conditions. Poststroke depression, for example, affects more than half of people who've had a stroke. This is why, for National Depression Education & Awareness Month this October, we have included our first feature on this challenging symptom.

In our story "Neurologic Conditions Can Lead to Depression—Here’s How to Manage It," one of our experts notes that neurologists like me may focus more on the neurologic condition itself and miss or dismiss depressive symptoms. That's why telling us how you feel is so important. If, for instance, your depression is triggered by a prescription medication, your doctor may be able to replace it with an equally effective treatment that's less likely to affect your mood. In fact, medications for high blood pressure, gastroesophageal reflux disease, pain, anxiety, and hormonal issues are among the more than 200 drugs associated with depression. Moreover, if you are taking three or more medications, your risk of depression increases. Telling your doctors will also enable them to check for conditions associated with depression, such as thyroid or other endocrinologic disease, nutritional problems or vitamin deficiencies, infections, and autoimmune disorders. Once you are diagnosed with depression and your doctor has been able to rule out sources like these, he or she will likely refer you to a psychiatrist, who may prescribe different drugs, counseling programs, and other strategies for coping.

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Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Sex chromosome contributions to sex differences in multiple sclerosis susceptibility and progression

+January 2018



Abstract
BACKGROUND:  Why are women more susceptible to multiple sclerosis, but men have worse disability progression? Sex differences in disease may be due to sex hormones, sex chromosomes, or both.

OBJECTIVE:

Determine whether differences in sex chromosomes can contribute to sex differences in multiple sclerosis using experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

METHODS:

Sex chromosome transgenic mice, which permit the study of sex chromosomes not confounded by differences in sex hormones, were used to examine an effect of sex chromosomes on autoimmunity and neurodegeneration, focusing on X chromosome genes.

RESULTS:

T-lymphocyte DNA methylation studies of the X chromosome gene Foxp3 suggested that maternal versus paternal imprinting of X chromosome genes may underlie sex differences in autoimmunity. Bone marrow chimeras with the same immune system but different sex chromosomes in the central nervous system suggested that differential expression of the X chromosome gene Toll-like receptor 7 in neurons may contribute to sex differences in neurodegeneration.

CONCLUSION:

Mapping the transcriptome and methylome in T lymphocytes and neurons in females versus males could reveal mechanisms underlying sex differences in autoimmunity and neurodegeneration.


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X-tra X (chromosome): An escape to autoimmunity

First published August 12, 2019 - 
Identifying the factors driving disease disparities between males and females with multiple sclerosis (MS) holds great promise for deciphering immunopathogenic disease mechanisms. In this issue of JCI, Itoh et al. explore the basis for sexual dimorphism in autoimmunity, specifically in MS. Using the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of MS, which recapitulates CD4+ T cell–dependent disease, the authors examined the contribution of Kdm6a, a histone demethylase gene known to escape X inactivation. Conditional knockout in CD4+ T cells revealed Kdm6a involvement with a collection of immunologic processes having the potential to skew immunity toward inflammatory responses. This study concisely shows the value of X chromosome gene expression in T cell regulation of autoimmunity and the relevance of Kdm6a in the pathogenesis of EAE as a model of MS.

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Monday, October 14, 2019

June Halper on How Supportive Team Care Can Help Patients With MS as Their Disability Increases

While there may be negative connotations attached to the term “palliative care,” this type of care could be called “supportive team care” to better express its potential to educate and care for patients with chronic illnesses such as multiple sclerosis (MS), said June Halper, MSN, APN-C, MSCN, FAAN, chief executive officer, Consortium of Multiple Sclerosis Centers.

Click banner to listen to a description of "palliative care" to be known as: "Supportive Team Care"






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Dr Daniel Kantor Highlights MS Treatments and What Is in the Pipeline

Sept 2019

The field of treatments for multiple sclerosis (MS) has grown quickly in the last 30 years, but the next new class of therapies probably won’t come to market for at least another year and a half, said Daniel Kantor, MD, president of Kantor Neurology.


Are there any particular multiple sclerosis trials that you’re keeping an eye on?

The field of MS is exciting. We’ve gone from having zero disease-modifying therapies in 1992, to our first medication in 1993, to, now, having 17 separate products. It’s amazing the leap forward. We now have 14 branded products, we have 2 unbranded generics, and 1 branded generic. That’s an amazing leap forward. That’s faster than anything in neurology, and frankly, faster than most things in medicine.

Click the above banner to listen to Dr. Kantor's response




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